# Chemistry

• Born-Haber Cycle - Understand the Born-Haber cycle and the different energy contributions for the formation of an ionic compound. Calculate the overall enthalpy change.
• Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Calculation - Learn how to calculate the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) which is a key indicator of water pollution levels based on the oxygen required to oxidize organic matter in water.
• Chemistry - Normality - Normality is used to express the concentration of reactive species in a solution in chemistry. Learn how to calculate normality with this handy calculator.
• Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures - Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures explains how to calculate the total pressure of a gas mixture. Learn how to apply Dalton's law with this calculator.
• Debye-Hückel Limiting Law - The Debye-Hückel limiting law calculates the mean activity coefficient for an electrolyte in a dilute solution based on the ionic strength and the ion charges.
• Entropy Change (ΔS) - The change in entropy (ΔS) is determined by subtracting the initial entropy from the final entropy of a thermodynamic system. It measures the disorder or number of configurations within the system.
• Equivalent Weight - Calculate the equivalent weight of a substance in chemistry using the molar weight and oxidation state.
• Fick's Law of Diffusion - Fick's law of diffusion allows for the determination of solute flux across an area due to diffusion.
• Gay-Lussac's Law - Gay-Lussac's Law explains the proportional relationship between the pressure and absolute temperature of a gas at constant volume. Calculate the final pressure of a gas with this formula.
• Gibbs Free Energy in Materials - Calculate the Gibbs free energy to determine the spontaneity of a reaction based on enthalpy, entropy, and temperature. ΔG = ΔH - TΔS.
• Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation - The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation relates the Gibbs free energy change to the enthalpy and entropy changes of a reaction at a constant temperature. Learn how to use this equation.
• HPLC Retention Time - The retention time in HPLC is calculated by subtracting the void time from the elution time. This calculator helps find the retention time.
• Half-Life (t½) Calculation - Calculate the half-life (t½) of a substance using the initial amount and decay constant with this helpful tool.
• Henry's Law - Henry's Law describes the solubility of a gas in a liquid. This formula calculates the partial pressure of a gas in a liquid.
• Hund's Rule - Hund's Rule helps to determine the maximum number of unpaired electrons in an atom's subshell for predicting its magnetic properties. This calculator uses Hund's Rule to calculate the unpaired electrons.
• Hybridization Theory in Molecular Chemistry - Determine the hybridization of an atom in a molecule based on sigma bonds and lone pairs using this simple calculator.
• Ideal Gas Law - The ideal gas law describes the behavior of an ideal gas under various conditions. This formula provides a way to calculate the number of moles of gas.
• Law of Mass Action - The law of mass action formula helps calculate the rate of a chemical reaction based on the molar concentrations of reactants and the rate constant.
• Molality - Molality is used to calculate the concentration of a solute in a solution without being affected by temperature or pressure changes, useful in colligative property studies.
• Molarity (Molar Concentration) - Molarity, denoted by M, is a key metric in chemistry that measures the concentration of a solute in a solution. Calculate it using the formula: M = moles of solute / volume of the solution in liters.
• Molecular Mass Calculator - This tool calculates the molecular mass of a chemical compound from its formula, utilizing atomic masses for each element in the compound.
• Neutralization Reaction - The neutralization reaction occurs between an acid and a base, leading to the formation of a salt and water. This calculator models the reaction.
• Ocean Acidification Calculation - Learn how to calculate ocean acidification using the relationship between hydrogen ion concentration and pH levels of seawater.
• Osmolarity Calculation - This calculator assists in determining the osmolarity of a solution based on the specified concentration of solute, molar mass of the solute, and volume of the solution.
• Percent Composition by Mass - This calculator helps determine the percentage composition of an element in a compound based on its mass in relation to the total mass of the compound.
• Percent Yield - Percent yield is calculated to measure the efficiency of a chemical reaction. It is the percentage of the theoretical yield obtained in a reaction.
• Salinity of a Water Body - Salinity is a measure of the concentration of dissolved salts in a body of water. This formula calculates the salinity of a water body.
• VSEPR Theory - This simplified formula for VSEPR theory helps predict the steric number based on the quantity of electron domains and lone pairs. This can help understand the molecule's shape but does not cover the full complexity of the model.
• Zero Order Kinetics Rate Equation - The zero order kinetics rate equation describes the rate at which a substance is consumed or produced over time. This formula helps calculate the concentration of a substance in such a reaction.
• pH Calculation of a Solution - The pH calculation of a solution is determined by taking the negative base 10 logarithm of the concentration of hydronium ions. This is key for chemistry and biology.