# Hybridization Theory in Molecular Chemistry

**Formula:** `hybridization = number_of_sigma_bonds + number_of_lone_pairs`

The hybridization of an atom in a molecule can be predicted by the valence bond theory, which is an extension of Lewis structures. Hybridization involves the mixing of atomic orbitals to create new hybrid orbitals suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds. The formula presented is a simplistic representation used to determine the number of hybrid orbitals around a central atom, which is the sum of the number of sigma bonds and the number of lone pairs. This formula is based on the assumption that each sigma bond and each lone pair require one hybrid orbital.

The key to understanding hybridization theory is knowing that the central atom's hybridization state depends on these factors:

- Every single bond is a sigma bond.
- Double and triple bonds contain one sigma bond and the rest are pi bonds, which are not counted in this model.
- Lone pairs on the central atom also contribute to hybridization.