Chemistry - Normality

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Formula: N = equivalentMass / volumeInLiters

Normality (N) is a measure of concentration equivalent to molarity multiplied by the equivalent factor. It is defined as the number of equivalent weights (equivalent mass) of a solute per liter of solution. To calculate normality, divide the mass of the solute in grams by its equivalent weight and then divide by the volume of the solution in liters. This gives the normality of the solution, which is often used in titrations and reactions involving acids and bases where the reacting species involve ions that can have different valencies.

In the formula, equivalentMass denotes the mass of solute after it has been converted into an equivalent mass (mass of solute * equivalent factor), and volumeInLiters represents the volume of the solution in liters. The result is expressed in normality units, which reflect the molar concentration of reactive species within the solution.

Tags: Chemistry, Normality, Concentration, Solution