# Optics

• Angular Magnification of a Telescope - The angular magnification of a telescope is the ratio of the focal length of the objective lens to the eyepiece lens. Calculate the magnification factor with this tool.
• Exit Pupil of an Optical System - The exit pupil of an optical system is calculated by dividing the objective diameter by the magnification. This calculation is vital for determining how much light reaches the eye.
• F-Number of an Optical System - The F-number of an optical system is the focal length divided by the aperture diameter. It is essential in determining the light-gathering ability and depth of field of a lens.
• Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror - Find out the focal length of a spherical mirror using its radius. The focal length is half of the radius of curvature. Use this calculator for both concave and convex spherical mirrors.
• Kerr Effect Induced Refractive Index Change - The Kerr effect formula calculates the change in the refractive index of a material due to the intensity of light passing through it, a key phenomenon in non-linear optics.
• Magnification Formula for Lenses - The magnification formula for lenses calculates the magnification factor based on the distance of the image and the object from the lens, allowing for lens design optimization.
• Mirror Equation for Concave and Convex Mirrors - The mirror equation for concave and convex mirrors connects the focal length with object and image distances, aiding in optical calculations and design.
• Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Calculation - The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a measure of the ability of an optical system to faithfully transfer contrast from the object to the image.