# Material Science

• Ductility Measurement - Percent Elongation - Calculate the percent elongation, a measure of ductility, as the increase in material length after stretching expressed as a percentage of its original length.
• Linear Thermal Expansion - Learn about the linear thermal expansion formula which predicts the length change of materials with temperature change. Useful for engineering and construction.
• Mohr's Circle for Plane Stress - Mohr's circle is a graphical representation of the state of stress at a point for plane stress. This calculator helps determine the normal and shear stresses on any plane passing through the point of interest.
• Porosity Formula - The porosity of a material is a measure of the void spaces in the material, expressed as a percentage. This calculator helps determine porosity.
• Strain Tensor Equations - The strain tensor is a mathematical representation of the deformation of a material and is used in continuum mechanics to describe the displacement and distortion of material particles.
• Stress-Strain Relationship for Linear Elastic Materials - This calculator helps determine the stress experienced by a linear elastic material based on its elastic modulus and strain.
• Thermoelectric Seebeck Coefficient - Understanding the Seebeck coefficient is crucial for designing materials for thermoelectric applications. Learn about its complexity and uses.
• Young's Modulus Calculation - Calculate Young's modulus (elastic modulus) using this online tool. Enter the stress and strain to find Young's modulus.